Bleeding gums is a symptom of poor oral hygiene. It is important to brush your teeth thoroughly and regularly and to floss between the teeth, so that food deposits do not become trapped to cause a build up of plaque. When plaque is not removed, bacteria, viral or fungal infections that arise in the gums and teeth produce acid and toxins that irritates and cause inflammation of the gums. The inflammation makes gums swollen, red and spongy and increases their tendency to bleed. The supporting structures of the teeth may become affected and cause the gum pockets to deepen around the tooth and the tooth to become loose in the socket, eventually leading to loss of the tooth. As the gum pockets deepen, it is easier for plaque deposits to be trapped which causes the disease to progress. Managing periodontal (gum) disease requires regular cleaning.
Inside your tooth’s hard outer shell is the pulp of the tooth, which contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. When bacteria are able to enter the pulp, either via tooth decay, through cracks in the tooth, or through unsatisfactory fillings, irritation and then finally death of the pulp can occur, causing the tooth to ache.
There are two types of teeth whitening procedures: the in-office procedure and the take-home procedure. These procedures are effective in whitening the teeth, but it has both advantages and disadvantages. The in-office procedure is usually more expensive, but the instant result is very gratifying. The possible side effect is tooth sensitivity due to the high concentration of peroxide used but it is harmless, as the bleaching does not cause any damage to the tooth. The sensitivity comes from the cleansing and unblocking of stain containing in the dentinal tubule by the bubbling effect of the hydrogen peroxide. The take-home procedure uses a lower concentration of carbamide peroxide. This procedure is more commonly used because it is easy to use, cheaper and more convenient.
Wisdom teeth are usually the last teeth to erupt in the mouth and this usually occurs in the late teens or early twenties. It is often the case that one or more wisdom teeth will have not enough room to erupt in the jaw. This can make brushing and flossing difficult, and thus make decay and soft tissue infection likely to occur. Upper wisdom teeth can also erupt sideways and cause ulceration of the soft tissue of the teeth. During a consultation, the dental surgeon can take a panoramic X-ray or OPG to determine which wisdom teeth are functional and which ones are indicated for removal. Early pre-surgery consultation is important in order to determine the best course of management for you.
Wisdom teeth do not usually cause pain until there is significant decay and soft tissue infection. Hence it is important to have early consultation in order to determine the best course of management for you. If wisdom teeth are indicated for removal, generally the sooner it is performed the better. In the late teens, the roots of the wisdom teeth are still forming, making the procedure easier and safer. The younger the individual, the speedier the recovery and the lower the risk of post operative complications. As the individual gets older, the bone becomes more calcified and less elastic and hence the extraction may be more difficult. The dental surgeon will tell you when the best time for the wisdom teeth removal is.
It is important to brush your teeth at least twice a day, in the morning and before you go to sleep. Brushing with a soft bristle and proper technique removes the plaque from your teeth. Flossing is just as important as brushing because it removes food deposits that are trapped between the teeth. This should also be done daily before going to bed. Remember to change your toothbrush about every three months as bristles become worn and ineffective in removing plaque.
There are many factors which contribute to the cause of bad breath (halitosis). Treatment for halitosis depends on the underlying cause. Commonly it is caused by sulphur-producing bacteria that live within the surface of the tongue and in the throat. When these bacteria break down proteins they release volatile sulphur compounds that give rise to the odor produced. Smoking, dry mouth, periodontal/ gum disease or nasal or sinus infections can also cause bad breath. Good oral hygiene, including brushing, flossing and tongue cleaning, is important. Other treatments may include mouthwashes, nasal spray or antibiotics.
There are a few options for replacing missing teeth. Dentures are recommended when there are many missing teeth as they help stabilise the load between the missing teeth, use the gum tissue for support and stabilise the forces between both sides of the jaw. Dentures can either be made entirely of acrylic resin with wire clasps or be fabricated with an underlying metal frame work which resin placed around the framework. It is often easier to make adjustments and additions to acrylic dentures., however, metal dentures are stronger, thinner and can be better tolerated. Other new options include flexible dentures. Some people find that dentures can be annoying in that they may move when eating or speaking.
Bridges are usually used to replace a single missing tooth. It involves preparation of the adjacent teeth, which have crowns placed on them and then cemented to the natural teeth. Bridges can also be supported by implants.
Another option is implant dentistry. This is a more expensive option, but implants last for a long time. Your dental surgeon can help you decide what option best suits your needs.
As many people know, braces are the most common way to straighten teeth. However, some people are concerned that they can not achieve straight teeth when they have exceeded a young age. It is still possible for adults to straighten their teeth. Invisalign, which are invisible braces, can provide a more confident way of straightening one’s teeth. Veneers are another option for improving the aesthetic appearance of teeth misalignment. They are also used to fill the gaps between teeth and to create a white smile for teeth that have become discoloured.
Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterised by abnormal pauses in breathing or instances of abnormally low breathing, during sleep. Each pause in breathing, called an apnea, can last from a few seconds to minutes, and may occur 5 to 30 times or more an hour. Similarly, each abnormally low breathing event is called ahypopnea. Sleep apnea is diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or “sleep study”. There are three forms of sleep apnea: central (CSA), obstructive (OSA), and complex or mixed sleep apnea (i.e., a combination of central and obstructive) constituting 0.4%, 84% and 15% of cases respectively. In CSA, breathing is interrupted by a lack of respiratory effort; in OSA, breathing is interrupted by a physical block to airflow despite respiratory effort and snoring is common. Regardless of type, an individual with sleep apnea is rarely aware of having difficulty breathing, even upon awakening. Sleep apnea is recognised as a problem by others witnessing the individual during episodes or is suspected because of its effects on the body. Symptoms may be present for years (or even decades) without identification, during which time the sufferer may become conditioned to the daytime sleepiness and fatigue associated with significant levels of sleep disturbance. > Watch Video

Dental anatomy – classification of Teeth

Permanent teeth can be classified according to their position and function

Front Teeth :

  • Central incisors
  • Lateral incisors
  • Canine or eye teeth

Back Teeth :

  • First premolars
  • Second premolars
  • First Molars
  • Second Molars
  • Third Molars or Wisdom Teeth Tooth


  • Crown: the visible part of the tooth of the tooth.
  • Enamel: is the substance that covers the crown of the tooth.It is very hard and quite resistant to mechanical and chemical attack. Its purpose, of course, is to protect the tooth from the dangers posed to the teeth by the oral environment.
  • Dentin: is the hard, yellow bone-like material that underlies the enamel, cementum and surrounds the entire nerve. is sensitive to touch and other stimuli.
  • Gums: the soft tissue that surrounds the root of the tooth.
  • Cementum: a layer of tough, yellowish bone like tissue that covers the root of a tooth. It helps to hold the tooth in the socket. the fibers of the periodontal membrane are embedded within the cementum.
  • Pulp: the soft centre of the tooth. The pulp contains blood vessels and nerves; it nourish the dentin.
  • Nerves: nerves transmit signals to and from the brain.This let you feels things like hot, cold and pain.
  • Periodontal membrane ligament: the strong fleshy tissue between tooth and the tooth socket that holds the tooth in place,the fibers of the periodontal membrane are embedded within the cementum.